Implementation of Collaborative Goal Setting for Diabetes in Community Primary Care

Collaborative goal setting (CGS) is a cornerstone of diabetes self-management support, but little is known about its feasibility and effectiveness during routine care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an existing CGS intervention when integrated by primary care staff. Using a mixed-methods approach guided by the RE-AIM framework, intervention adoption, implementation, reach, and effectiveness were evaluated over 12 months. Three of four sites adopted the CGS intervention, in which 521 patients with type 2 diabetes (9–29 % of those targeted) received CGS. For those with suboptimal glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7.5 %), %A1C decreased by 1.1 for those receiving CGS (n = 204, p < 0.001) compared to 0.4 for a group who did not (n = 41, p = 0.23). Practice characteristics influenced adoption and implementation, while isolation of CGS from the remainder of clinical care likely influenced reach and effectiveness. CGS may benefit patients with diabetes, but a lack of integration by practice staff is a key barrier to overcome during implementation.