Recent Research Publications and Funding

  •  | August 11, 2015 4:00AM

    BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that patient navigation improves breast cancer screening rates; however, there are limited efficacy studies of its effect among African American older adult women.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of patient navigation on screening mammography among African American female Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore, MD.

    DESIGN: The Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration (CPTD), a multi-site study, was a randomized controlled trial conducted from April 2006 through December 2010.

    SETTING: Community-based and clinical setting.

    PARTICIPANTS: The CPTD Screening Trial enrolled 1905 community-dwelling African American female Medicare beneficiaries who were ≥65 years of age and resided in Baltimore, MD. Participants were recruited from health clinics, community centers, health fairs, mailings using Medicare rosters, and phone calls.

    INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to either: printed educational materials on cancer screening (control group) or printed educational materials + patient navigation services designed to help participants overcome barriers to cancer screening (intervention group).

    MAIN MEASURE: Self-reported receipt of mammography screening within 2 years of the end of the study.

    KEY RESULTS: The median follow-up period for participants in this analysis was 17.8 months. In weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses, women in the intervention group had significantly higher odds of being up to date on mammography screening at the end of the follow-up period compared to women in the control group (odds ratio [OR] 2.26, 95 % confidence interval [CI]1.59-3.22). The effect of the intervention was stronger among women who were not up to date with mammography screening at enrollment (OR 3.63, 95 % CI 2.09-6.38).

    CONCLUSION: Patient navigation among urban African American Medicare beneficiaries increased self-reported mammography utilization. The results suggest that patient navigation for mammography screening should focus on women who are not up to date on their screening.

  •  | August 10, 2015 4:00AM

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents (JOVEN/YOUTH: Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate the effects on DV victimization and perpetration (N = 82). Self-administrated assessments were completed at baseline, 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after the intervention to assess for psychological victimization and perpetration and physical and sexual victimization and perpetration. Effect sizes were estimated, and generalized estimating equations were generated to test intervention effects over time and potential gender interactions. The intervention had medium to strong effects on DV victimization and perpetration for male participants but not for females. However, intervention effects were not statistically significant over time. More research is needed to enhance intervention effects of JOVEN on DV outcomes and to evaluate these effects among a larger and more diverse sample.

  •  | August 1, 2015 4:00AM

    Type 2 diabetes is a significant problem for the uninsured. Diabetes Group Medical Visits (DGMVs) have been reported to improve outcomes. However, it is not known if the increased workload of the health care team to treat and educate patients at multiple visits has an impact on patient functioning and well-being. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dose of DGMVs on biophysical outcomes of care in uninsured persons with diabetes. No significant correlations were found between number of DGMVs attended and biophysical outcomes of care. However, the majority of patients attended two or less DGMVs in 1 year. Dose of DGMVs did not impact outcomes and may not be enough to assure attendance. Involving patients to construct patient-centered interventions may decrease the treatment burden faced by both patients and providers. In addition, such interventions should be aimed at understanding reasons for low attendance, particularly in rural impoverished adults.

  •  | July 28, 2015 4:00AM

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of LISTEN (Loneliness Intervention using Story Theory to Enhance Nursing-sensitive outcomes), a new intervention for loneliness.

    METHODS: LISTEN was developed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for intervention development. Extensive literature review revealed that belonging, relating, placing in community, challenges, and meanings of coping were concepts significant to loneliness. Past interventions were limited but it was determined from a recent meta-analysis that enhanced effectiveness might result from interventions that targeted the poorly adapted cognitive processes of loneliness. These processes include social undesirability, stigma, and negative thoughts about self in relation to others. LISTEN is designed to be delivered in a determined logical sequence of 5 sessions, each focusing on the concepts relevant to loneliness as derived from the literature. For each session, intervention delivery is guided by the concepts from story theory (including intentional dialogue, nurse as listener, examination of self in relation to others and community, synthesizing concerns and patterns, and identifying messages) and the principles of cognitive restructuring (self-assessment of maladaptive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, identifying challenges of changing, reconceptualization of self, new skill acquisition through group interaction, and identifying patterns of meaning in loneliness).

    RESULTS: LISTEN is developed and the first randomized trial is complete with a sample of 27 lonely, chronically ill, community dwelling, and older adults. LISTEN was evaluated as feasible to deliver by the study team and acceptable for significantly diminishing loneliness by participants of the LISTEN groups who were compared to attention control groups (p < 0.5).

    CONCLUSIONS: LISTEN has the potential to enhance health by diminishing loneliness which could result in improving the long-term negative known sequelae of loneliness. Future longitudinal randomized trials are needed in varied populations to assess long term health and healthcare system benefit of using LISTEN to treat loneliness.

  •  | July 28, 2015 4:00AM

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of LISTEN (Loneliness Intervention using Story Theory to Enhance Nursing-sensitive outcomes), a new intervention for loneliness.

    Methods: LISTEN was developed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for intervention development. Extensive literature review revealed that belonging, relating, placing in community, challenges, and meanings of coping were concepts significant to loneliness. Past interventions were limited but it was determined from a recent meta-analysis that enhanced effectiveness might result from interventions that targeted the poorly adapted cognitive processes of loneliness. These processes include social undesirability, stigma, and negative thoughts about self in relation to others. LISTEN is designed to be delivered in a determined logical sequence of 5 sessions, each focusing on the concepts relevant to loneliness as derived from the literature. For each session, intervention delivery is guided by the concepts from story theory (including intentional dialogue, nurse as listener, examination of self in relation to others and community, synthesizing concerns and patterns, and identifying messages) and the principles of cognitive restructuring (self-assessment of maladaptive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, identifying challenges of changing, reconceptualization of self, new skill acquisition through group interaction, and identifying patterns of meaning in loneliness).

    Results: LISTEN is developed and the first randomized trial is complete with a sample of 27 lonely, chronically ill, community dwelling, and older adults. LISTEN was evaluated as feasible to deliver by the study team and acceptable for significantly diminishing loneliness by participants of the LISTEN groups who were compared to attention control groups (p < 0.5).

    Conclusions: LISTEN has the potential to enhance health by diminishing loneliness which could result in improving the long-term negative known sequelae of loneliness. Future longitudinal randomized trials are needed in varied populations to assess long term health and healthcare system benefit of using LISTEN to treat loneliness.

  •  | July 8, 2015 4:00AM

    This article presents a review of the literature to identify best practices for clinical partnerships with indigenous populations of North America, specifically American Indian/Alaska Native, First Nations, Métis, and Inuit of Canada. The authors have identified best practices and lessons learned from collaborating with indigenous populations, presented in 2 categories: conceptual guidelines and health care delivery guidelines. Major themes include the importance of trust and communication, the delivery of culturally congruent health care, and the necessity of working in partnership with tribal entities for successful delivery of health care. Best practices in health care delivery with indigenous populations are presented.

  •  | June 29, 2015 4:00AM

    BACKGROUND: Review of research to date has been focusing on maintaining weight and nutrition with little attention on optimizing eating performance.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on eating performance for older adults with dementia in long-term care (LTC).

    METHODS: A systematic review was performed. Five databases including Pubmed, Medline (OVID), EBM Reviews (OVID), PsychINFO (OVID), and CINAHL (EBSCOHost) were searched between January 1980 and June 2014. Keywords included dementia, Alzheimer, feed(ing), eat(ing), mealtime(s), oral intake, autonomy, and intervention. Intervention studies that optimize eating performance and evaluate change of self-feeding or eating performance among older adults (≥65 years) with dementia in LTC were eligible. Studies were screened by title and abstract, and full texts were reviewed for eligibility. Eligible studies were classified by intervention type. Study quality was accessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, and level of evidence using the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence.

    RESULTS: Eleven intervention studies (five randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) were identified, and classified into four types: training program, mealtime assistance, environmental modification, and multicomponent intervention. The quality of the 11 studies was generally moderate (four studies were rated as strong, four moderate, and three weak in quality), with the main threats as weak designs, lack of blinding and control for confounders, and inadequate psychometric evidence for measures. Training programs targeting older adults (Montessori methods and spaced retrieval) demonstrated good evidence in decreasing feeding difficulty. Mealtime assistance offered by nursing staff (e.g., verbal prompts and cues, positive reinforcement, appropriate praise and encouragement) also showed effectiveness in improving eating performance.

    LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: This review provided preliminary support for using training and mealtime assistance to optimize eating performance for older adults with dementia in LTC. Future effectiveness studies may focus on training nursing caregivers as interventionists, lengthening intervention duration, and including residents with varying levels of cognitive impairment in diverse cultures. The effectiveness of training combined with mealtime assistance may also be tested to achieve better resident outcomes in eating performance.

  •  | June 25, 2015 4:00AM

    Great variation exists in the nature of LHD service delivery and it varies, in part, relative to jurisdiction population size. Larger LHD jurisdictions may achieve an economy of scale in WIC service delivery that is not matched in smaller areas. Overall, we found that WIC service provision appears relatively consistent across study states and in the presence of increasing need, with greater responsiveness to need in urban areas. As demand for some preventive services increases LHDs in rural areas may need greater support than LHDs in large jurisdictions for meeting local demand. Unlike WIC, LHD-provided services that have less consistently maintained service-delivery guidelines may have a harder time responding to increasing need. The relative consistency of a federally-funded program such as WIC may serve as a good baseline for further study of less consistently delivered programs among LHDs. LHD service statistics can serve as useful data sources in measuring volume of service delivery relative to need.

  •  | June 11, 2015 4:00AM

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the relationship of depressive symptoms with self-management by adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a descriptive correlational design, participants completed Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure.

    FINDINGS: Reported were energy loss, sleep change, and fatigue. Performed less were exercise, physical activity, eating vegetables, and blood checks. Significant correlations were BDI-II total score with feet checking, energy loss with feet checking and exercise, and sleep change with feet soaking.

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Depressive symptoms were associated to self-management behaviors that require physical energy. Assess for advancing symptoms.

  •  | June 3, 2015 4:00AM

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher’s professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by “normalizing” rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments.